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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

"Although it may seem counterintuitive, the best way to maximize profits over the long-term is not to make them the primary goal of the business," Mackey said in an interview earlier this year.

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这一周发生的事情对国王来讲是火车事故:毫无说服力的否认,考辛斯在全明星周日交易的时刻,可怜的交易回报价值,
在美国监管机构担心交易所交易基金(ETF)市场增速可能太快的同时,他们在亚洲的同行以及资产管理公司和分销商却忙着考虑还有什么办法可以提高投资者的兴趣。
unique

遗憾的是,随着乌拉圭在当地时间周六(6月28日)被哥伦比亚淘汰出局,本届世界杯决赛将不再是巴西和乌拉圭之间的再次对话。如果巴西杀入7月13日的决赛,对手将可能是墨西哥、荷兰、哥斯达黎加、希腊、美国、比利时、阿根廷和瑞士中的一支(译注:1/8决赛中,墨西哥与希腊分别不敌荷兰与哥斯达黎加,憾别世界杯)。
No. This crisis hit Amsterdam in 1772, after a respected Dutch investment syndicate made a disastrous bet on shares of the British East India Company.
4.You Don't Like Most of Your Coworkers

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

广州家居卖场促销分化:价格取胜 品质取悦

佐治亚州萨凡纳市(SAVANNAH, GA.)
中国的旅游业官员正力图在2014年扭转入境游客减少的情况,专家认为,如果能对其过时的旅行团进行改进并降低票价,这一计划就有可能实现。
That's part of the logic, anyway, behind the unlikely candidacy of Ethan Sonneborn, a 13-year-old running for governor of Vermont, one of just two states with no minimum age requirement for the office.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

After laying low for months, Taylor made a spectacularly bold return with this new album.
regulate
新加坡樟宜国际机场已经连续五年在每年一度的Skytrax世界机场大奖评选中获得世界最佳机场。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 我们要营造有利于创业就业的环境,不是靠政府去提供铁饭碗,而是让人民群众用劳动和智慧去创造或者说打造金饭碗。
  • 家居品牌假日促销常态化 商家不敢再玩“假促销”
  • Every January for the past decade I have handed out awards for horrible use of language in business. Usually the task amuses me. This year I have found the sheer weight of euphemism, grammatical infelicity, disingenuity and downright ugliness so lowering I have decided to start the 2016 Golden Flannel Awards with something more uplifting: a prize for clarity.
  • 一线城市房价略反弹 去库存仍是主要任务
  • 2019年苏州首场重大项目推进会相城举行
  • 陆金所是最大的一家。它是中国平安保险(Ping An Insurance)的子公司,平安也是陆金所最大的股东。
    Jose's mother Inma Quesada told the El Pais daily that her son "wanted to buy instruments" for his band Los Salerosos (loosely translated as "The Salties"), in which he plays the trumpet.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 陶瓷卫浴未来市场:广大农村和二线城市, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

LED产业发展现状和趋势分析

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

河北曲周官方回应“袁府”一事:将调查相关单位监管责任

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Perhaps the biggest domestic threat to the 3% growth scenario would be a surprisingly swift hike in interest rates, but from all indications a dovish Federal Reserve is unlikely to take aggressive action in 2015.
    ['k?mpleks]
  • 当你想到他的时候,你的心跳一会跳得快,一会跳得慢
    工作经历
    而今年的诺贝尔奖,更是一反过往青睐大型科技成果的传统,将大奖颁给了体积最小的科学新发现。
    On Sunday, the night before the Doodle debuted, Zhang told Newsday she was "excited" by the big win, but said she wouldn't be awake when her art first went online at midnight.
    v. 扩充,延伸,伸展,扩展

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 中原地产:反弹乏力 暖冬不再
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 假期房企未大规模推盘 楼市回暖销量未现井喷

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Saif held the highest position among the five ranked Chinese schools, just ahead of Guanghua School of Management and Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management, 17th and 18th respectively.
Landing a superstar like Cousins for pennies on the dollar won't singlehandedly help the Pelicans carve out a larger slice of the sports landscape in New Orleans, but it's an excellent first step.
岁数最小的富豪是来自挪威的企业继承人亚历山大·安德森,她今年只有19岁。亚历山大20岁的姐姐是岁数第二小的上榜富豪。
A New Year greeting to cheer you from your daughters.愿女儿的新年祝福带给你快乐。
spoon
而其他的队伍还有在尝试赢球的。小牛队,在3-13的战绩面前,骄傲地说他们不会垫底。但是,明年被认为是近年来最好的NBA选秀,有Markelle Fultz, Jayson Tatum, Lonzo Ball, Josh Jackson, Harry Gile, OG Anumoby, Ivan Rabb……等等优质球员。
10月份,南非减持美国政府债券到103亿美元。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • When reflecting on the year in film, moviegoers often remember strong performances, or they might consider how a movie worked as a narrative, the emotions it evoked, what chances it took.
  • 健康睡眠产品需求大 床垫专业化是大方向
  • Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year.
    [p?'lu:n]
  • 欧盟对华日用陶瓷反倾销调查终裁结果出炉
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 工业部和信息技术部的数据显示,上月新能源汽车的产量为1.61万台,比去年同期大幅上涨了144%。全电动乘用车的产量达到7952台,是去年同期的三倍。政府数据显示,一月份生产的新能源汽车,97%都有资格享受税收优惠政策。
    《敦刻尔克》是克里斯托佛.诺兰第二部背景设定不在当代(或未来)的电影,这部战争片描绘了在敦刻尔克营救数十万大军的史诗般宏大场面。该片由汤姆.哈迪、马克.里朗斯、肯尼斯.布莱纳,斯里安.墨菲以及哈里.斯泰尔丝出演。想一想《拯救大兵瑞恩》,不过比这更刺激。
  • The punctuality rate of China's major airports is still far from satisfactory, according to the latest report published by local aviation statistic company VariFlight.
    There was no immediate word from the Romney camp on the reported results。
  • 我的同事Sylvia Guinan让我意识到,热爱足球的丈夫应该告诉他的妻子在2014世界杯期间需要注意的一些事情。
    公民价值观是民主政体最重要的资产。
  • Blige will perform "Mighty River" from "Mudbound," the Oscar-nominated song she co-wrote with Raphael Saadiq and Taura Stinson. Blige is also nominated for best supporting actress for her role in "Mudbound." She is the first person to be nominated for both a performance and an original song in the same year.
    States are falling all over themselves to be chosen as the site for Tesla’s proposed $5 billion Gigafactoryto produce lithium ion batteries. California is competing with Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and the bidding for the factory, which could employ up to 6,500 people, is said to be up to $500 million.
    排球拳击乒乓球举重沙滩排球铁人三项艺术体操蹦床篮球射击羽毛球艺术体操足球网球
  • v. 借,供应货款,
    Do you often feel gloomy and down in the dumps?
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 冀东水泥:公司水泥产品价格已实现连月上涨 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

人民币贬值只会小幅利空楼市 不会压垮房价

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

地板业打响“狙击战”转型升级大幕已开

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

同质化竞争“生死局” LED企业如何可持续发展?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

解析李嘉诚“撤资”对LED行业造成怎样的影响

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • China’s reserves have fallen for nine of 11 months this year and stand at $3.43tn, as investors sell renminbi assets to protect themselves against depreciation and the central bank sells dollars from its reserves to curb renminbi weakness. Falling interest rates in China and expectations of an imminent rate rise by the US Federal Reserve have also fuelled outflows. Reserves rebounded mildly in October, suggesting outflows had diminished.
  • 你如何知道你需要喝水了?这有一系列的诱因:嘴唇发干、头晕、头痛、尿量低和口渴。然而,这种智能瓶能在你的身体意识到缺水前就提醒你。
  • 中国社科院预计2019年中国经济增长6.4%左右

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • adj. 群众的,大规模
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Shanghai, by comparison, trades on 12.6 times earnings. This reflects a wide (37 per cent) spread between the Shanghai’s A shares and the H-share equivalents. Before the ups and downs of 2015 it was more usually below 20 per cent, hinting at significant upside to the H-share index. True, it does not represent the best of China’s “new economy”, being heavily skewed towards banks in particular. Growth forecasts are moribund. Yet with expectations already so dire, it is hard to see how they can worsen. Even property — beset with overcapacity — has been pulling out of its slump.
    "As robotics is expanding into nearly every industry, Chinese robot makers should realize the gap between them and foreign brands, take advantage of China's robotics development boom and learn from foreign experience to help China grow from the world's largest robot market into a robot manufacturing power," said Qu.
    巴韦贾对全球化不断变化的性质的深度分析显示,全球贸易增长疲软背后的主要因素是投资减速。全球贸易增速曾在很长一段时间内是全球GDP增速的两倍。
  • As per their findings, the recovery mechanism based on reset SMS codes recorded a success rate of 81%, while the method relying on backup emails proved to be efficient in 75% of the cases.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • I'm assuming they'll end up around the No. 10 pick at this point; it's hard to get an instant franchise player that low, and New Orleans doesn't have all the time in the world.
  • 三问深圳“禁油漆令”
  • 某种程度上,这种借鉴是基于这样的假设:把一种时装风格从它自身的环境中剥离出来,就能同时去除它所有潜在的负面寓意:譬如战争和王朝。它会变成一种独立存在的审美形式,不再象征任何复杂的社会和政治动荡。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 2017下半年门窗幕墙行业面临的那几个问题?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 房租暴涨原因多 追问房租暴涨背后的几大疑点
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

整体卫浴和传统卫浴相比之下的优缺点

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 上半年房屋装修服务投诉居高不下 质量问题占比高
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 揭秘家居建材价格欺诈惯用伎俩
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

但是,在秀台上和零售店里,那种情感上的认同消失了。那么,我们还剩下什么?

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

这家总部位于伊利诺伊州皮奥利亚的重型机械制造商于1月份批准了100亿美元的股票回购,预计将在今年一季度回购17亿股股票,以完成先前75亿美元的回购计划。公司CEO道格o奥伯赫尔曼表示,正在进行的回购是“我们的现金流创纪录的结果”。(财富中文网)
圣文森特(St. Vincent),《数码证人》(Digital Witness), Loma Vista/Republic
in内+tend伸展+ed→故意的;打算中的
Last but not least, no matter what kind of personality you are, be positive and stay healthy!
另有其他四部国产电影挤入榜单前十位,排名第三的是《羞羞的铁拳》,第四名为《功夫瑜伽》,第五名为《西游伏妖篇》,第八名为《芳华》。
尽管销量大幅增长让人欢欣雀跃,但它并不是汽车业今年最重大的新闻。底特律先是因为通用汽车公司(General Motors)提拔玛丽?芭拉出任汽车业首位女性首席执行官而欢欣鼓舞;紧接着,福特汽车(Ford)首席执行官艾伦?穆拉利在重回波音公司还是加入微软公司(Microsoft)两者间犹豫不决之际,它又紧张得大气都不敢喘。传统的三巨头抱怨现有产能已挖掘到极限,开始制订扩张和聘用新人的计划。特斯拉公司(Tesla)让电动汽车的销量火了一把,而且不肯按行规出牌;而同时谷歌公司(Google)则在自动汽车研制上一马当先。
但是他告诉华盛顿报的记者他依然很希望能够读到这封信,毕竟这封信是当时的纯真、关切和真诚的见证。
Switzerland, Sweden and the UK again occupied the top three slots in the ranking. Fifteen of the top 25 economies in the GII come from Europe.
我们不会越俎代庖,不会超越区域去做不应是中国做的事情。
《艋舺》:回味残存的青春记忆

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

红木家具回购市场尚不成熟

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 《华胥引》的故事是这样的:卫国公主以身殉国,不久死而复生,从此她改名换姓开始了新的旅程。电视剧改编自唐七公子的同名网络小说,于2015年七月首播,主演林源、郑嘉颖。不过和同类剧集相比,《华胥引》的人气就没那么高了。据网上的评论说,这部戏的主角和服装都不够抓眼。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 改革就是要解放和发展生产力,调动广大人民的积极性,让群众得到实惠,为政之要就是要舍小利、顾大义、顺民心。
  • 呼和浩特家居建材卖场岁末促销正旺
  • 不错,2014年完全是一场灾难,只等着引爆。在《年内股市崩盘的概率有多大?》(Doomsday poll: 87% risk of stock crash by year-end)一文中,我们分析了今年年初以来的10大崩盘征兆。之后,我们又不断发现了更多新的妖魔。它们有如嘀嗒作响的定时炸弹,来自国会、最高法院、性问题、碳排放、石油巨头、国家安全局(NSA)、国税局(IRS)、茶党式财政紧缩。接踵而至,让人无法招架。
  • 家居卖场:“过剩”不能一概而论
  • Soyabeans which are trading above $10 a bushel are expected to remain strong, while dairy prices are also expected to rise during 2017 as demand steadily increases, said the bank.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 限购加码楼市调控鼓点渐强
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 2014年、2015年的研发经费增速分别为9.9%和8.9%。研发经费在去年国内生产总值(GDP)中的占比为2.11%,比上年提高0.05个百分点。
  • Bono and The Edge collaborated with Tina Turner on this, the sultriest James Bond song ever. This is a song sung by someone you will be attracted to, damn it, and for whom you would do just about anything. Tina Turner has more erotic confidence in one Golden eye theme than most of us will ever experience in our whole lifetimes. James Bond songs had never been this deliciously sweaty before. It's like pheromones set to music.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

拟定高度677米 中国第一高楼选址天府新区

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